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Korean Red Ginseng – Pharmacological components | Kgcuae

Korean ginseng

The king of all herbs, Ginseng has been used in the countries of East Aisa for thousands of years. The cure-all herb has been used for the treatment of several diseases over the years due to the numerous Ginseng benefits. Korean Red Ginseng is now also getting included in agricultural and dietary supplements. But have you ever wondered- what makes Korean Ginseng such a miracle?

The answer to this is nothing but its Pharmacological compounds. 

The pharmacological compounds of Korean Ginseng can get classified into- Saponins/ Ginsenosides, Non-Saponins. These are the active compounds that make Korean Ginseng do such wonders. From the total active compounds, the presence of saponins is 3-6%, while for non-saponins and others, it is 94-97%.

Saponins/ Ginsenosides

The Ginsenosides make 3-6% of the total content. These triterpene saponins are the signature bioactive compounds of Korean Red Ginseng. The pharmacologically active compound has been researched by numerous, and to date, 200 Ginsenosides have been reported. Some of the Ginsenosides found in Korean Red Ginseng are  Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, and Rg1. The steroidal structure of Ginsenosides makes them have multifaceted pharmacological activities. The Ginsenosides cause transcriptional alterations by interacting with membrane-bound ion channels, cell membranes, and extracellular and intracellular receptors. All these activities of Ginsenosides make it possible for them to show anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activities. 

Non-Saponins

Earlier, the credit of the miracles of Korean Red Ginseng was given to just Ginsenosides. But later, Gintonins got discovered, and now both the active ingredients get considered pharmacologically active. These ribonuclease-like storage proteins are the major latex-like proteins present in Ginseng. Gintonins, along with Ginsenosides, are responsible for the chemical activities that make Korean Red Ginseng a potential health supplement.                                   

Other Non-Saponins 

Acidic Polysaccharides get considered to be the most active component of Korean Red Ginseng. Reportedly, polysaccharides are the main reason behind the blood sugar-lowering activities of Ginseng. Another non-saponin is Arginine-Fructose-Glucose. AFG gets uniquely found in Red Ginseng and shows anti-diabetic effects by inhibiting carbohydrate absorption in the stomach, which restricts elevation in blood glucose level. 

The non-saponin fraction of Korean Red Ginseng also includes phenolic compounds like maltol, vanillic acid, salicylic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. These phenolic compounds make Korean Red Ginseng an antioxidant and an anti-fatigue agent. Korean Red Ginseng also contains 24 types of amino acids. The content of free amino acids is 2%, and for Arginine, it is 50%. Arginine gets reported to show the immune-enhancing effects of Korean Red Ginseng. It also contains essential oils that are responsible for its therapeutic aroma.

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